Tomato whole management program——Preparation before planting
Biological characteristics of
Whether the cultivation of the North and the South, the biological characteristics of tomato is the same, the only change is the environment. Many problems arise is that biological characteristics and our environment is not a good match.
1, temperature: tomato hi temperature, the optimum temperature of 20-25 ℃, less than 15 ℃ can not flowering, or pollination fertilization bad, less than 10 ℃, the plant stopped growing; below 5 ℃, 1 ℃, the death of frozen; more than 30 ℃ assimilation significantly reduced; higher than 35 ℃, the reproductive growth by the interference and damage, 40 ℃ drop fruit or fruit dysplasia, humidity, death!
2, light: tomato hi light and shade-tolerant, short-day plants but does not require strict, so a large area of north and south planting. That is not more than 16 hours of light in the case, the tomato can be normal growth, but the lack of light conditions prone to a series of adverse reactions.
3, moisture: tomato root system is developed, a lot of information is to say, but now the north and south of the tomato plant can grow very little developed roots. Although the biological characteristics of root system is very developed, but the artificial cultivation process due to management problems, environmental problems, and ultimately lead to tomato roots are very poor. Tomato roots are poor, the absorption capacity will be blocked, then there will be such and such problems. Tomato water demand more, but without a lot of irrigation. The actual production, is often a lot of irrigation, fear of water shortage. Now from the south to the north, tomato irrigation, mostly excessive. Tomato planting soil moisture content of 60% -80% is appropriate. However, many parts of the tomato, especially the greenhouse, the soil moisture content of more than 90% of the time, can account for most of the entire growth period, this case will lead to root death of oxygen, and then produce a variety of diseases. Therefore, soil moisture management should be maintained see dry see wet, to avoid soil too dry too wet. Over-wet root anoxic necrosis, watering after over-induced cracking fruit and navel rot.
4, Nutrition: According to the study of each 1000 kg of fruit production need to consume nitrogen (N) 2 - 3.54 kg, phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) 0.95-1 kg, potassium oxide (K2O3) 3.89-6.6 kg, these elements of 73 % In fruits, 27% in roots, stems, leaves and other vegetative organs. Annually cultivated per mu yield (greenhouse) 30-40 tons. The above data can be found, we usually pay attention to the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, this inorganic nutrition only 0.5-0.8% of the fruit quality, the vast majority of other water (not ordinary water, is the synthesis of photosynthetic process) is organic nutrition.
1, adapt to the local market: variety selection is based on the local market, taking into account the sales problem. (Tomatoes, tomatoes, etc.); color (pink, red, black tomatoes, etc.); use (fresh type, processing type, etc.);
2, to adapt to local conditions: light time, soil type, water and fertilizer.
3, suitable for planting stubble:
Early spring: large arch shed, small shed, open field cultivation.
Summer: mainly in order to shade, cooling. Such as rain shelter cultivation.
Winter: mainly for insulation, increase light. Such as greenhouse cultivation
Whether winter or early spring cultivation, there is a standard: soil temperature stability in more than ten degrees.
Selection and design of plots
Reliable water, smooth drainage, smooth roads, power stability, soil hypertrophy. Standard: facilities, access and smooth.
Analysis of Soil Types
Gravel soil: good permeability, leakage leakage fertilizer, mineral nutrition is rich.
Clay: changeable slime water, less water stone, fertilizer and water.
Loam: soil is better, organic matter is rich, the overall soil structure between the sand and gravel soil and clay.
Salinity: poor permeability, compaction serious, mainly due to higher groundwater level, easily lead to root disease.
Correct analysis of soil types, to take the right cultivation mode, is the key to normal crop growth.
Soil fertility: the amount of organic matter, how the residual inorganic nutrients. Planting more than ten years of greenhouse, the only soil is not lack of inorganic nutrition. There is a soil pH, soil salt to do a simple test. Then there are residues of harmful substances on the crop. Close to the mine, may be heavy metal pollution, there are a large number of use of herbicides. There are repeated cropping agent, the old garden bacteria and other issues to do a full understanding, or direct cultivation of tomato may lose everything.
The type of organic matter
Soil lack of organic matter, to add organic matter. We must first understand the type of organic matter.
Manure: Manure is now widely used throughout the country. Although a lot of information on the disadvantages of chicken manure, but chicken manure is an essential raw material to improve organic matter, and chicken manure in the hearts of farmers a high status, because chicken manure has certain advantages: nutrient-rich, Potassium, crude protein and so on. However, in the case of non-maturity application, burn the root is very serious. There is also a problem, because the chicken digestive tract is relatively short, antibiotics, salt, chicken farms with the disinfection of the fire with all the residues in the chicken manure, so chicken manure or to be careful application. Fermented chicken manure more difficult, their high sodium content, long-term large-scale application of the benefits of the soil arrived, but its disadvantages, it should be carefully applied, including pig manure. Therefore, manure is the best choice of cow dung, sheep manure, because they are herbivores, fecal crude fiber content is more.
There is also a source of organic matter is straw, crude fiber content is high, can also be used to adjust the soil after the soil carbon and nitrogen ratio, especially for some old sheds, their nitrogen exceeded, we use this straw organic fertilizer, the In the soil fermentation, will consume nitrogen. Just as we use straw to promote the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Straw fermentation with the process of microbial reproduction, microbial propagation needs of food, straw gave him.
Cake organic matter content is relatively high, reaching 75% -80%, its nitrogen content is still very high, we must pay attention to the use of fermented decomposition, or burn the root is very serious.
Commodity organic fertilizer: organic fertilizer on the market more goods, choose the time to consider its raw materials. For example, to do with the manure raw materials, we must consider its maturity fermentation problems, the problem of salt content. There are all kinds of domestic waste, sludge production of organic fertilizer products, we should pay attention to whether it exceeded the heavy metals. There are food plants, pharmaceutical companies, paper mills, monosodium glutamate plants and other waste will be made of organic fertilizer products. So we have to understand its raw materials, according to our soil and raw material characteristics to decide how to use.
Humus: nature of microbial decomposition products, are organic compounds, tomatoes can provide some nutrients, there is a role in the soil mineral elements, so that the soil is not easy to be absorbed elements easy to use.
Soil type and organic matter compatibility
Gravel soil: because of its permeability is very good, choose the end of the fiber application class cake fertilizer, improve soil water conservation and fertilizer capacity. Topsoil can choose humus.
Clay: because of its more viscous permeability is relatively poor, at the end of fiber type, increase its permeability.
Loam: the use of more extensive, fiber type, cake fertilizer class, there are other types can be used.
Saline land: the end of fiber, topdressing humus.
Acidification of soil: the end of alkaline plant fiber.
Soil improvement: gravel soil and clay, you can choose the method of mixed soil, to improve the purpose.
Fertilizer selection basis
Base fertilizer: can continue to meet the growing tomatoes to meet the growing demand.
Top-dressing: Fast-acting to meet current tomato needs and correct current problems.
Selection of compound fertilizer basis: base fertilizer selection of compound fertilizer will choose slow release type, and only slow release of compound fertilizer to achieve long-term in order to continue for the fertilizer in order to meet the nutritional needs. If the use of nitrate nitrogen fertilizer, the presence of soil solution, easy to lose; the contrary, with ammonium nitrogen fertilizer, soil microsomes are susceptible to adsorption, relatively long-term. There are from the process, the formaldehyde, nitrification inhibitor, and some coating, are to achieve a fertilizer slow release of a means, so the choice of tomato base fertilizer, you can consider these. If you want to grow leafy vegetables, his growing period is relatively short, also 1,2 months time, do not choose this fertilizer. Therefore, the whole management should be based on crop, according to the different characteristics of crops, according to the needs of different periods to give him the most perfect program.
Trace elements: Although the requirements are small, but the role of great, can not be ignored. But the application of the time to pay attention to the nature of the soil, in fact, the soil is generally not the lack of trace elements, then why plant lack of performance? Because the soil environment changes, such as soil acidification, aluminum ions, manganese ions are more active, will inhibit phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other absorption, the crop will show symptoms of calcium deficiency magnesium. There is also a lack of symptoms of molybdenum, why would it? Because the acidic soil in the oxidation of molybdenum to exist, not easily absorbed by crops. Another example is the alkaline soil, it is relatively high hydroxide ions, zinc deficiency easily lead to iron deficiency, because the soil pH affect the effectiveness of mineral elements. So that additional trace elements to pay more attention to the nature of the soil, the key time to add more from the foliage.
Bacterial fertilizer: bacteria on the market more and more vegetables used up. The choice of bacterial fertilizer should pay attention to the quality of their own. Bacterial fertilizer varieties are more, like rhizobia, azotobacter, phosphorus bacteria, potassium bacteria, actinomycetes and so on. The breeding of bacteria using a culture, two culture, there are some bacteria. Many manufacturers a culture, two training process, due to a variety of environmental problems, resulting in some of the viability of bacteria is relatively poor, used in soil, adaptability is relatively poor, a direct impact on the effect of bacteria. Another is to focus on the soil environment, soil organic matter content, pH value, its reproduction of bacteria have a great impact, so there is no rapid onset of bacterial fertilizer, one reason here. A lot of information on soil improvement 3 major issues: organic matter, pH, micro-organisms, in fact, the most important thing is organic matter. Because the first replenishment of organic matter can provide a living space for micro-organisms, if there is no organic matter, to provide a large quantity, no matter how good the quality of fertilizer, it can not survive. Second, if soil organic matter content is rich, the pace of soil acidification will be very slow, because the soil organic matter can buffer from all aspects of the pressure.